A discoloured or stained tooth has an abnormal translucency or hue due to direct or indirect factors. Staining can be external (extrinsic) or internal (intrinsic). When stains accumulate on the surface of the tooth, it is known as extrinsic discolouration. And when the pigmentation is absorbed into the structure of the tooth it is known as intrinsic staining. External or extrinsic discolorations are caused due to the intake of iron supplements, organic components in food and drink, indirect extrinsic staining due to cationic antiseptics, non-metallic stains due to ammonium compounds etc. The causes of intrinsic discolourations are due to systemic syndromes, metabolic disorders, tetracycline stains, fluorosis, dentin hypoplasia and other dentin defects.
Dentin hypoplasia: Developmental disruption of the tooth affects the quantity enamel of the tooth which is either insufficient or irregular. The predominant causes of dentin hypoplasia are attributed to the intake of tetracycline during pregnancy, deficiency of vitamin D and poorly calcified enamel.
Fluorosis: Also known as hypomineralization of the enamel, fluorosis is caused due to the excessive incorporation of fluoride during the development of the tooth. Severe fluorosis leads to marked hypomineralization of the tooth while mild fluorosis has white spots or is lacy in appearance.
Dr. Renju treats superficial enamel discolourations with in-office bleaching methodologies where active hydrogen peroxide is applied to the teeth. This process accelerates teeth whitening and is extremely useful for just a small set of discoloured teeth. For multiple sets of discoloured teeth the doctor uses carbamide peroxide 10% from orange to light-brown discolourations. Multiple discoloured teeth may also be administered hydrogen peroxide through thin, flexible polythethylene strips known as whitening strips